On to see and identify the wildlife again, here we are with a variety of new plants and plant characteristics. We will start with the basic and underappreciated and progress until everything feels that way (hopefully).

Grasses and Sedges

Timothy-grass, Phleum pratense

This species of grass is abundant in  heavy soil throughout the United states and Canada and is widely promoted as a grass for hay cultivation. The species is notable for the hairless and rolled leaves, lack of stolons, rhizomes, and auricles, and the flower-head is quite long with densely packed spike-lets.

Fringed Sedge, Carex crinita

This evergreen sedge grows most effectively around water margins, bogs, and meadow wetlands. For this reason, it is widely used as a simple plant for erosion control. It has short creeping rhizomes and grows densely with leafy culms that are rough at the margins.

Invasive Species

Multiflora Rose, Rosa multiflora

Known to be fast-growing, this species of rose was introduced to the United States from Asia and planted as an ornamental plant, a natural barrier to farm animals, a wildlife enhancement plant, and a plant for erosion control as it was encouraged for said use by the USDA in the 1930’s. The plant is now largely classified as a noxious weed as it poses the biggest problem for cattle grazing lands. The species can be uprooted by pulling with thick gloves as it does possess thorns.

Japanese Knotweed, Polygonum cuspidatum or Reynoutria japonica

As the name suggests, the plant is native to Japan as well as Korea, China, and Taiwan. Knotweed has hollow stems and distinct nodes. It is often confused as a relative of bamboo, but there is no close relation. It is considered one of the World’s worst invasive species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). It is resilient to almost all soil pH levels and causes severe damage to architecture due to the speed and strength of the growth of a colony. They are resilient to most forms of damage, but the most effective methods include the herbicide glyphosate.

<https://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/profile/japanese-knotweed>

Monocots and….

Monocots are largely identified by parallel leaf veins and petals and sepals in multiples of three. In a more in-depth level, monocot seeds form one seed leaf known as the cotyledon when germinating and only grows one shoot. The vascular tissue bundles are complexly arranged as well.

Bearded Iris, Iris germanica

A monocot as all members of the Iridaceae possess parallel leaf veins and leaves/sepals, or in this case tepals, in multiples of three. Similar to the Blue Flag Iris, this species is sterile and is a hybridized species. The plant was found close to it’s relatives and is distinguished by the softer upright tepals.

Blue-eyed Grass, Sisyrinchium angustifolium

Another monocot in the Iris family, Iridaceae, i is actually not a grass. As seen in the example, the flower has six petals and parallel veins as is necessary to be a monocot.

Eudicots

Characterized by many petals and sepals, typically 4-5 but often more. Unlike monocots, dicots have two cotyledons and when the seed is germinating and grows one shoot with two branches. Vascular tissue bundles are arranged in a ring, and veins have a net-like appearance on leaves.

Meadow Salsify, Tragopogon pratensis

Unfortunately not blooming at noon, Meadow Salsify  or “Goatsbeard” is an invasive species with numerous petals and leaves with net-like veins. This species is known to bloom in the morning and close up around midday.

Greater Celandine, Chelidonium majus

Possessing four petals and complex leaves with net-like veins, this herb is a dicot and close in resemblance in habitat to Creeping Buttercup, the easiest way to differentiate the two eudicots are the number of petals as Celandine has four petals and Buttercup has five petals.

Animals and Seed Dispersal

Dog Rose, Rosa canina

An invasive rose, the flowers are Bright white and produces the bright red accessory fruit known as rose hips. Unfortunately many species are still flowering in early summer and have yet to produce fruits or even ripe fruits. However, birds and squirrels among other animals eat these fruits and disperse the seeds after passing them off.

Bush Honeysuckle, Lonicera morrowii

Also known as Morrow or Morrow’s Honeysuckle, this particular species is known to have ovoid leaves with smooth edges and textured surfaces. The berries produced by the plant are also bright red and very attractive to most birds. The seeds are normally dispersed after being ingested by an avian.

Mosses

Delicate Fern Moss, Thuidium delicatulum

A member of the pleurocarps with broad costate leaves, this particular moss also has unipapillose cells and is quite soft to the touch. I am unsure if this is the correct species as only a few particular strands had branches and there may be a more accurate title for this specimen. Found in a semi-wet forest floor.

Slender Starburst Moss, Atrichum angustatum

I am confident on this species being an acrocarp. Found in a damp environment close to a marsh, this species is made of mammillose cells and wavy leaves and lamellae.

Ferns

Eagle Fern, Pteridium aquilinum

Interrupted Fern, Osmunda claytoniana

Infected Trees

Unfortunate Quercus (Maple) and Termites

Termites are always a problem for trees, they often leave a snail-trail type pattern as they prey upon a tree, and slowly the tree will rot and fall apart.

Pignut Hickory, Carya glabra and Powdery Mildew

This particular hickory is prone to the fungal infections anthracnose and powdery mildew which unsightly infect the leaves and require removal via scraping or cutting.

Shrubbery

Chinese Privet, Ligustrum sinense

Glossy Buckthorn, Frangula alnus