Coefficients of Conservatism is a range from zero to ten that estimates the probability that the species is native before pre-European colonization.

Quercus Velutina or commonly known as Black Oak has a CC of 7. A native tree that grows in Northern America. The leaves are alternative, simple, dark green, and sinuate. The tree can grow up to 90 feet tall and have a large canopy. The flowers are green/yellow drooping catkins, and the flowering and leafing sprout together. The fruit is an acorn. The tree can in any soil or they are common in many different environments. Black Oak may not have always been in Ohio but it has always been in North America.

Carya Tomentosa or commonly known as Mockernut Hickory has a CC of 6. This North American tree can grow up to 125 feet tall with a large canopy. The leaves are simple, alternative, and vary in size and shape. The bark in grayish brown with thick ridges. The tree forms cream colored clusters that droop which bloom in May to June. The fruit is a nut that usually has two seeds. This tree has may uses throughout history and researchers are unsure if or when this tree was introduced.

Lonicera maackii and commonly known as Amur Honeysuckle has a CC of 0. A non-native invasive  species from Asia. Can grow in almost any soil type or climate. This shrub can grow up to 15 feet tall, which is usually classified as tree height. The leaves are opposite simple with the stem’s pith being hollow. The leaves stay on most of the year so they can out compete other species. The flowers are yellowish white that bloom in late spring. The fruit are small red drupes that start appearing throughout fall.

Alliaria petiolata and commonly known as Garlic Mustard has a CC of 0. This non-native invasive species was introduced from Europe in the 1860s. The plant is invasive because it is able to grow in many different climates. In the first year the plant grows low rosettes of kidney shape leaves. In the second year the plant grows multiple flowering stalks that are 4 feet tall.  The leaves smell like garlic. The flowers grow in clusters with four petals, sepals, and stamens. The fruit is dark capsules that are 3mm long.