An angiosperm is a plant that flowers and produces seeds that with enclosed within a carpel. This is the largest large of herbaceous plants, shrubs, grasses, and most trees.

Fraxinus Pennsylvanica or commonly known as Green Ash, and part of the Oleaceae family. A native tree found throughout North America. Coefficient of conservation is 2.36. Currently being threatened by the Emerald Ash Borer along with other species. Can grow up to 25 feet tall and grows in wide variety of soils but refer wet soils. Bark is light grayish brown with inner bark reddish brown. Leaves are opposite and pinnately compound. Male and female flowers are different plant and the seeds are winged samara.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 3

40.10068, -83.1205

Carya Tomentosa or commonly known as Mockernut Hickory, and part of the Juglandaece family. A native tree in North America. Can grow up to 50-60 tall and 30 feet wide. Refers sunny conditions in acid and well drained soils, can grow in many different soils through. Alternative compound leaves with a stalk that is hairy. The fruit is a nut that is ripen in fall.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 6

40.1008, -83.12014

Quercus Muehlenbergii or commonly known as Chinkapin Oak, and part of the Fagaece family. A native tree to Northern America that can grow up to 80 feet tall and 70 feet wide. Grows in sunny conditions and refers alkaline soil that is moist and well drained, but can grow in other soils as well. Alternative leaves that can vary in shape and size but most commonly 4-6 inches long, dark green, and smooth. The male flowers are hanging catkins and the female are inconspicuous tiny spikes found in the axils of new leaves. Fruit is a acorn, nut.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 7

40.10082, -83.12015

Quercus Velutina or commonly known as Black Oak, and part of the fagaece family. This is a native tree found throughout Northern America. This tree can grow up to 60 feet tall. The leaves are alternative, simple, lobed, and dark green. Grows best in moist and well drained soils but can grow in many different soils. Females flowers are inconspicuous and male flowers are pendulous. The fruit is an acorn, nut.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 7

40.10086, -83.12015

Quercus Macrocarpa or commonly known as Bur Oak which is part of the Fagaceae family. A native tree that grows in Northern America. The leaves are alternative, simple, dark green, and sinuate. The tree can grow up to 90 feet tall and have a large canopy. The flowers are green/yellow drooping catkins, and the flowering and leafing sprout together. The fruit is an acorn. The tree can in any soil or they are common in many different environments.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 6

40.10127, -83.12009

Celtis Occidentalis or commonly known as Hackberry, part of the Cannabaceae family. A native tree species to Northern America. Grows up to 80 feet tall and has a large canopy. The leaves are alternative, ovoid, serrated, and green. The flowers start blooming shortly after leaves start growing. The fruit is a berry that is a common food source for animals. The tree grows best in low sunlight areas with sandy loam soils.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 4

40.10097, -83.12016

Acer Negundo or commonly known Boxelder Maple, part of the aceraceae family. The native North American tree can grow up to 50 feet tall. The leaves are opposite and pinnate. There are serrate female and male flowers, and form in clusters. The fruit are samaras so they disperse with a large range.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 3

40.1009, -83.12055

Acer Saccharum or commonly known as Sugar Maple, which is part of the aceraceae family. A North American native tree that can grow up to to 130 feet, one of the tallest maple species. The leaves are opposite and simple, lobed, and smooth. The flowers are unisexual and are doping clusters. The fruit is a samara with the wings are reddish. The trees grow in sunny conditions and sandy loam conditions.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 5

40.1012, -83.12005

Tilia Americana or commonly known as Basswood which is part of the Linden family. This North American tree can grow up to 125 feet tall with a large canopy. The leaves are simple, alternative, and vary in size and shape. The bark in grayish brown with thick ridges. The tree forms cream colored clusters that droop which bloom in May to June. The fruit is a nut that usually has two seeds.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 6

40.1015, -83.12006


Fagus Grandifolia

American Beech

40.1014, -83.1197


Pyrus Calleryana or commonly known as Callery Pear, which is a Rosaceae family. This a non-native and invasie shurb species can from Asia. The shurb can grow up to 50 feet tall. The leaves are alternative, simple, shiny with slight teeth. Flowers in early spring even before the leaves start growing. The fruit is a drupe that is 0.5 inches around. This plant can grow in many soils and out compete other species.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 0

40.10068, -83.12095

Symphyotrichum Cordifolium or commonly known as Blue wood-Aster which is part of the daisy family. The plant can grow up to 3 feet tall and wide, with large spaces between each plant. This plant grows in many climates throughout North America. They grow best in areas without to much sun, only about 3 hours a day.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 4

40.1008, -83.1203

Persicaria pensylvanica or commonly known as pennsylvania smartweed, which is part of the polygonaceae (Buckwheat) family. There are 75 species of smartweed in North America. The flowers for this species were white and clustered together before being germinated, and forming fruit. The fruit is a syncarpous. This plant grows in damp soils with moderate sunlight.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 4

40.10037, -83.1202

Toxicodendron Radicans and commonly known as Poison Ivy, belongs to the anacardiaceae family. Poison Ivy is one of the most well poison plants, if people do not know what it looks like they at least know its affects on the body. There are features of poison ivy that can help identify it. The most well known feature is the three leaves with pointed tips, can be smooth or toothed edges but are not serrated. The leaves look like droops and the middle leaf is the largest. In the summer the leaves are dark green and in fall the leaves turn red or yellow. The vines are woody with hairy roots that have the ability to climb up trees or other surfaces. The fruit of poison ivy white and or bright yellow.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 1

40.1010, -83.1202

A poison ivy primer

Toxicodendron pubescens and commonly known as Atlantic poison oak, which is part of the anacardiaceae family. This species is more rare than poison ivy and grows in sandy soil. This species may have been at the site because it grows in sandy soil where there is isolated patches. This species as three leaflets in each set and the sets grow alternative. The fruit of the oak is a small green drupe.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 1

40.1007, -83.12014

Lonicera Morrowii and commonly known as Morrow’s Honeysuckle, which is Caprifoliaceae family. A non-native from Asia and now invading North America. The shurb can grow up to 7 feet tall and the pith is hollow. The leaves are opposite and they are hairy underneath. The flowers are paired, borne from leaf axils, white, tubular with five separate petal lobes. The plant blooms in early spring with the fruit being reddish orange drupes.   

Coefficients of Conservatism: 0

40.10078, -83.1208

Monarda Fistulosa and commonly known as Wild Bergamont which is part of the Lamiaceae, the mint family. The plant an grow up to four feet. The flower blooms in July to September. The flower is lavender in color. The plant flower does not need a lot of shade or water so it can grow in many locations.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 3

40.1012, -83.1207

Dipsacus Fullonum and commonly known as Wild Teasel, which is part Dipsacaceae the teasel family. This is a non-native species that was introduced to North America. The plant can grow up to 8 feet tall and has thick taproot and fibrous secondary root system. Teasels bloom in July to September, they most likely bloomed early this year because of the rain and heat. The leaves have scalloped edges and scattered stout hairs on the top. The flowers are cone-shaped and spiny clusters. The individual flowers are up to 3/5 inches long, with white petals, and 4 purple lobes. The fruits are enclosed single seeds that are light brown and are 1/5 inches long, ridged, hairy, and 4 angled. Each plant can produce up to 3,300 seeds.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 0

40.1022, -83.1191

Barbarea vulgaris or commonly known as Yellow Rocketcress which is part of the Brassicaceae family. This is an invasive species that can be found in almost every state and much of southern Canada. The plant can grow up to four feet tall with four yellow petals. The flower starts to bloom in spring spring. The leaves are alternative that grow about 20cm. The flower has six stamen that are 4mm long. The fruit are achene and have the ability to disperse long distances. The inflorescence is raceme.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 0

40.0975, -83.1095

Ulmus Americana and commonly known as American Elm which is part of the Ulmaceae family. The native tree grows about 80 feet tall. The leaves are alternating simple leaves that grow in a ovate shape, with double serrate with straight veins. The flowers are reddish on pendulous stalks which are not flashy, they appear in very early spring. The fruit are small samaras to travel further distances, and are usually green or yellow.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 2

40.1028, -83.1158

How to identify and American Elm

Vitis vinifera and commonly known as Wild Grape Vine, which is part of the Vitaceae family. One of the only species that is not edible by humans. It is a vine type of the plant so it does not have a truck but instead grows around other species. They can reach any length with an average vertical height of about 17 meters. They are able to grow in almost any climate or soils. The leaves are alternative, and cordate and lobed. The flowers are small white that grow in clusters that bloom in early summer, they are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by insects. The fruits are berries(grapes) that start to ripen in late summer.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 1

40.1006, -83.1203

Persicaria virginiana and commonly known as Jumpseed, which is part of the polygonaceae family. The plant grows up to 4 feet tall and the leaves are broad, 6 inches long, and 3 inches wide. They are rounded at the base and come to a point. The flowers are sparsely arranged in the spike raceme which are vary in length. The flowers are white with 4 petals, 4 stamens, and small spikes. The fruit is unique because when touched the seed is released from the oval and looks like it “jumps”. The life cycle is perennial. The plants grows in shady wetland areas, and blooms in July to September.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 3

40.1023, -83.1151

Verbascum thapsus and commonly known as Great Mullein is part of the Scrophulariaceae, figwort family. In the first year of growth the plant consists of a rosette of basal leaves usually 2 inches across. In the second year the plant grows a 7 foot tall un-branched flower. The plant grows best in sunny areas in sandy clay soils. This is a non-native species to the Midwest and comes from Eurasia. It was introduced as an ornamental plant. The leaves are alternative 12 inches long and 4 inches across, and are large at the base and smaller as they go up. Each flower has 5 pale yellow petals, 5 hairy green sepals, 5 stamens, and a pistil. The top 3 stamens are hair and the bottom 2 are hairless. The plant blooms in summer and only lasts about one month. For each flower 2 seeds are produced.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 0

40.1022, -83.1192

Alliaria petiolata and commonly known as Garlic Mustard which is part of the Brassicaeae mustard family. This non-native invasive species was introduced from Europe in the 1860s. The plant is invasive because it is able to grow in many different climates. In the first year the plant grows low rosettes of kidney shape leaves. In the second year the plant grows multiple flowering stalks that are 4 feet tall.  The leaves smell like garlic. The flowers grow in clusters with four petals, sepals, and stamens. The fruit is dark capsules that are 3mm long.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 0

40.975, -83.1095

Galium triflorum and commonly known as Fragment Bedstraw which is part of Rubiaceae, Madder, family. This is a native plant to Midwest so can grow in different climates and soils. The leaves are whorled in groups of six that are 2 inches longs and half an inch long. The flowers are cluster of three with 4 greenish white petals, sepals, and stamen. The fruits are follicle, they are tiny round pods with one seed.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 4

40.1004, -83.1201

Solidago canadensis and commonly known as Canada Goldenrod, part of the asteraceae family. Native to Canada as well as the rest of North America. The plant grows up to 5 feet tall. The flowers of the plant are numerous, small, yellow, and grow at the top of the plant. They grow in clusters between 100 and 1300. Each flower have 8-15 ray flowers and 3-6 disc flowers. The stamen vary in number but are hairy and long. The leaves of the plant are alternative, 7 inches long, and one inch long. The fruit are achene cone shaped about 1 mm long.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 1

40.1007, -83.1210

Lonicera maackii and commonly known as Amur Honeysuckle which is part of the Caprifoliaceae family. Another non-native invasive honeysuckle species from Asia. Can grow in almost any soil type or climate. This shrub can grow up to 15 feet tall, which is usually classified as tree height. The leaves are opposite simple with the stem’s pith being hollow. The leaves stay on most of the year so they can out compete other species. The flowers are yellowish white that bloom in late spring. The fruit are small red drupes that start appearing throughout fall.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 0

40.1006, -83.1210

Symphyotrichum pilosum and commonly known as Frost Aster which is part of teh asteraceae family. The plant can be 3.5 tall and grows best in sunny, dry, and loam soils. The leaves are alternative and simple, 4.5 inches long and .75 inches across. There are multiple pedals, sepals, and stamens. The fruit is a follicle seed with white hairs to carry in long distances.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 1

40.1007, -83.1211

Silphium perfoliatum and commonly known as Cup Plant, which is part of asteraceae family. The plant grows through the Midwest and many different ecosystems. The leaves are large usually being 10 inches long, 6 inches wide, and coarsely toothed. They are opposite and simple. The flowers are 30 stalked flowers that bloom in July-September around the upper lead axils. Each flower in 3 inches across with up to 35 yellow ray flowers. The fruit, samara, form around the ray flowers.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 6

40.1003, -83.1216

Euonymus alatus and commonly known as Burning Bush, which is part of the Celastraceae family. This non-native shrub is an invasive plant in the Midwest, after its introduction from Asia. When fully grown it can be 12 feet tall and 15 feet wide. The plant can grow in many environments and climates, but does not grow well in wetlands. The leaves are opposite, obovate to elliptical, and dark green. In fall the leaves become bright red, which gives it its name. The flowers have petals, sepals, and stamens which start blooming mid spring. The fruit ripen in fall, they are reddish orange seeds that hang below the split open capsules.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 3

40.1010, -83.1204

Rudbeckia laciniata and commonly known as Cutleaf Coneflower which is part of the Acnthaceae. The plant is native to most of north Northern America. This plant can grow up to 8 feet tall. The leaves are alternative, 12 inches long and across. It grows best in areas in little shade and prefers moist wet drained soils. The flower has multiple bright yellow pedals, with green sedals, and many stamens. They bloom in July to September. Like the sunflower, when germinated it produces many fruit, achene.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 6

40.1011, -83.12068

Rudbeckia Laciniata

Hedera helix and commonly known as Common Ivy, which is part of the Araliaceae. This species is native to Europe, Asia, and Northern Africa. It was introduced in the 1700s and is an aggressive invasive species. The plant can grow in many conditions. The leaves are alternative, dark green, waxy, and a white vein in the leaves. The flowers bloom in late summer and occur in globular starburst type inflorescence at the tips of the flowering stems. The fruits drupes with a black seed with fleshly outside.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 0

40.1027, -83.1163

Dicentra Cucullaria and commonly known as Dutchman’s Breeches which is part of the Fumariaceae. Commonly found throughout north Northern America. It grows best in low sun light in loam soils. The leaves are complex with multiple leaflets. The flowers bloom in early spring, they are white and sometimes pink. They form clusters of flowers because of the raceme inflorescence. There are two outer petals and two inner petals, with two sepals. The fruit is syncarpous and split into 2 segments which releases the seeds.

Coefficients of Conservatism: 6

40.0975, -83.10952